Vancouver School of Theology

Forming thoughtful, engaged and generous Christian leaders for the church in the 21st century

Library

Research Tools

Online Databases

Web Resources by Subject

Research Ethics

“The online tutorial TCPS 2: CORE (Course on Research Ethics) is an introduction to the 2nd edition of the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS 2). It consists of eight modules focusing on the guidance in TCPS 2 that is applicable to all research regardless of discipline or methodology.

The purpose of TCPS 2: CORE is to provide an introduction to TCPS 2, primarily for researchers and, secondarily, for REB members.”

“This Policy expresses the Agencies’ continuing commitment to the people of Canada to promote the ethical conduct of research involving humans. It has been informed, in part, by leading international ethics norms, all of which may help, in some measure, to guide Canadian researchers, in Canada and abroad, in the conduct of research involving humans.” (p.5, Introduction)

“The Office of Research Ethics […] offers access to several free, external online training resources that provide valuable information about best practices for research involving human subjects.”

Hebrew Bible

Website of the Biblical Archaeology Society, providing up-to-date articles about the “land, culture, and people of Israel during the Biblical period, especially from the Iron Age to the Persian period.”

Website run by Charles Grebe with resources for those learning Biblical Hebrew. The site includes comics, lectures, flashcards, charts, and worksheets.

The Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library uses the world’s most advanced imaging technology to provide access to the scrolls, which include the oldest known copies of biblical texts.

Website aimed at helping Christians learn biblical Hebrew.

From the Academy of Ancient Languages, this site provides mp3 tracks of the Hebrew scriptures read in Hebrew.  These tracks are available for individual verses of the biblical books.

This site provides various helps for learning the Hebrew alphabet, including information about the letters, vowel points, writings styles, transliteration, numbers and Hebrew fonts.

Very helpful site with the complete Hebrew Bible in 5 editions and the Mishneh Torah. Contains links to seven free offline resources to learn Torah.

“The mandate of the Online Critical Pseudepigrapha is to develop and publish electronic editions of the best critical texts of the ‘Old Testament’ Pseudepigrapha and related literature.” The site allows you to search through the various documents by genre, biblical figure, or full title.

Catalogue of publications by The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago. “The goal of the Oriental Institute is to be the world’s leading center for the study of ancient Near Eastern civilizations by combining innovation in theory, methodology, and significant empirical discovery with the highest standards of rigorous scholarship.”

“This blog is intended to be an outlet for research and questions on the textual criticism of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible and related issues.”

The homepage for the “Society for Old Testament Study (SOTS) […] a learned society, based in the British Isles, of professional scholars and others committed to the study of the Old Testament.”

“TanakhML Project aims at providing scholars with efficient tools for travelling over the Bible in Hebrew, as well as with a common descriptive language for describing the structure of the Bible according to the Jewish masoretic tradition.” This site provides users with a Hebrew text browser, a verse structure analyser, form concordances, and some hermeneutic tools.

Site that provides a chart of the Hebrew alphabet with a guide on how to write and pronounce the letters (requires Macromedia Flash Player).

New Testament

“The British New Testament Society seeks to promote research of the New Testament and related writings. It sponsors an annual conference, attendance at which is open to professional biblical scholars and PhD students.”

Online Greek Dictionary. “You can search for a word based on its Strong’s number, GK number, or transliteration. You can also page through the words using [the] index.”

“Our central task is to research the textual history of the New Testament and to reconstruct its Greek initial text on the basis of the entire manuscript tradition, the early translations and patristic citations.”

Online version of the Liddell-Scott-Jones lexicon.

A “directory of academic internet resources on the New Testament, hosted by Logos Bible Software and edited by Mark Goodacre. Browse or search annotated links on everything connected with the academic study of the New Testament and Christian Origins.”

Look up verses in the Greek New Testament. Parses individual words.

“This tool allows two or more Biblical [manuscript editions] to be easily compared in side-by-side and unified views (no original unedited MSS are yet incorporated). […] All of the contributing manuscripts are merged together to produce a single unified manuscript containing every attested variant; additionally, while merging, a manuscript’s words are linked to their corresponding words in the unified manuscript.”

This site “provides access to a number of works from authors such as Homer, Hesiod, Plato, Aristotle, the Greek tragedians and orators that have traditionally been used in college level instruction of Greek […] we have included […] a representative selection of texts that will satisfy the needs of students and non-experts wishing to study Greek. In addition, this site contains editions that have been replaced by newer or different ones.”

General Biblical Studies

“The leading website for academic Bible study. It provides free access to the original Bible texts in Greek and Hebrew, published by the German Bible Society, in addition to English and German Bible translations.”

“Combines reviews and ratings from journals, books, and users to create an aggregate ranking for Biblical commentaries.”

“Bible hub is a production of the Online Parallel Bible Project […] for the express purpose of sharing Bible study tools online.” This site features “topical, Greek and Hebrew study tools, plus concordances, commentaries, dictionaries, sermons and devotions.”

“On Bible Odyssey, the world’s leading scholars share the latest historical and literary research on key people, places, and passages of the Bible.”

Free research tools for in-depth study; allows you to search through various translations of the Bible and provides access to concordances, dictionaries, encyclopaedias.  Additionally, this site offers Greek and Hebrew interlinears and lexicons.

Bible study application with bonus features for studying Greek and Hebrew. Includes word parser, making it particularly useful.

“Bibledex is a project by the University of Nottingham’s Department of Theology and Religious Studies in conjunction with video journalist Brady Haran. The videos are by no means comprehensive – rather they’re a curious assortment of academic insights into what is probably the most famous collection of books in history.”

Searchable database (books and articles) for biblical studies research.

List of biblical studies’ journals, providing free access to over 32,000 articles.

Access to 8,849 articles, with more being added.

Bringing together “a number of scholars interested in offering to the academic world a research instrument in the areas of biblical and exegetical studies.” Provides access to Biblica, a peer-reviewed research journal, published by the Pontifical Biblical Institute, and Filologia Neotestamentaria, a journal that  is focused on the New Testament.

“An index of biblical references found in Christian literature, both Western and Eastern texts, at present covering the three first centuries, along with part of the fourth. The eventual goal is to cover the whole Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages, in order to renew the study of the interpretation and history of biblical texts.”

Search engine providing information for various biblical studies resources.

“The Blue Letter Bible has a number of powerful tools in place to promote robust Bible study.”

“The Canadian Society of Biblical Studies (CSBS) [is] the oldest humanities academic society in Canada. The Society provides a meeting place for those interested in all aspects of the academic study of the Bible—Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, New Testament—in its literary and historical context.”

“The Codex Sinaiticus Project is an international collaboration to reunite the entire manuscript in digital form and make it accessible to a global audience for the first time. Drawing on the expertise of leading scholars, conservators and curators, the Project gives everyone the opportunity to connect directly with this famous manuscript.”

“EABS is a registered scholarly society for the academic study of biblical and cognate areas that is open to scholars from all over the world, from senior scholars to graduate students. The society holds an annual conference and a separate annual student conference in Europe.”

“The mandate of the Online Critical Pseudepigrapha is to develop and publish electronic editions of the best critical texts of the ‘Old Testament’ Pseudepigrapha and related literature.” The site allows you to search through the various documents by genre, biblical figure, or full title.

“Out In Scripture is a collection of over 175 conversations about the Bible. With the skilled help of 100 diverse scholars and pastors, from over 11 different denominations, you will discover a fresh approach to Scripture. Here you can be honest, question and go deeper… You don’t have to leave your mind, heart and body behind when you encounter the Bible. This Human Rights Campaign resource places comments about the Bible alongside the real life experiences and concerns of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer people of faith and our allies. The Bible’s not about beating you up, but lifting us all up. It includes the seeds of liberation and justice. You, too, can be out in Scripture.”

Oxford Biblical Studies Online provides a comprehensive resource for the study of the Bible and biblical history. The integration of authoritative scholarly texts and reference works with tools that provide ease of research into the background, context, and issues related to the Bible make Oxford Biblical Studies Online a valuable resource not only for college students, scholars, and clergy, but also anyone in need of an authoritative, ecumenical, and up-to-date resource.”

Links to various sites containing different sacred writings.

“Founded by the Society of Biblical Literature, [the Review of Biblical Literature] presents reviews of books in biblical studies and related fields.”

A free resource offering tools to engage both with different translations of the Bible and the Bible in its original languages. Includes a useful parsing tool.

A Greek and Hebrew interlinear Bible (this site contains downloadable software and PDFs; it does not provide online research tools).

“The Society of Biblical Literature is the oldest and largest learned society devoted to the critical investigation of the Bible from a variety of academic disciplines.” This site offers a number of useful tools for studying the Bible.

The writings of Geerhardus Vos, an American Calvinist theologian who was the first Professor of Biblical Theology at Princeton Theological Seminary.

Church History

“The American Society of Church History is a community of scholars, dedicated to studying the history of Christianity in relation to broader culture, across all time periods, locations, and cultural contexts.”

“Founded in 1960, the Canadian Society of Church History is a non-denominational association dedicated to promoting and encouraging research in the history of Christianity, particularly the history of Christianity in Canada.”

“The CRRA is a nonprofit membership alliance of institutions collaborating to deliver projects and services in support of its mission ‘to provide enduring global access to Catholic research resources in the Americas.’ Our immediate focus is creating access to those rare, unique, and uncommon research materials which are held by libraries and archives in North America.”

“Founded in 1979, the Center for Studies in the Wesleyan Tradition staffs, supervises, and enriches [. . . ] curricular and extracurricular offerings in Methodist and Wesleyan Studies and supports significant educational outreach programs designed for our United Methodist constituencies. In addition, the center develops and provides access to outstanding research resources for students and scholars of the broad Wesleyan tradition around the globe.”

“The mission of the Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) is to build up the church by making classic Christian literature widely available and promoting its use for edification and study by interested Christians, seekers and scholars. The CCEL accomplishes this by selecting, collecting, distributing, and promoting valuable literature through the World Wide Web and other media.”

Free resource, aimed at making “high quality theological material available throughout the world, thus providing Bible teachers and pastors with the resources they need to spread the Gospel in their countries.”

“The Ecclesiastical History Society (EHS) was founded in 1961 and aims to foster interest in, and to advance the study of, all areas of the history of the Christian Churches.”

“The Meeter Center houses one of the world’s largest collections of materials on John Calvin, Calvinism, the Reformation and early modern studies. The Center, jointly supported by Calvin College and Calvin Theological Seminary, invites you to explore the world of John Calvin and the Reformation.”

Collection of free, downloadable articles about the history of Christianity.

“The website of the North American Patristics Society. NAPS promotes the study of late antiquity and early Christianity primarily through [their] journal and annual meeting.”

Site containing the works of Jonathan Edwards. This “collection contains edited published works and raw manuscripts.”

“The Perseus Catalog was conceived in 2005 as a way to integrate two complementary kinds of resources, bibliographies of authors and editions produced by and for classicists and metadata about Greek and Latin authors in more general library systems. The goal was to create a catalog that would provide coverage of Greek, Latin, and ultimately other literatures in a way that was suitable to a digital age.”

A collection of resources that cover “the history, literature and culture of the Greco-Roman world.”

The Post-Reformation Digital Library (PRDL) is a select database of digital books relating to the development of theology and philosophy during the Reformation and Post-Reformation/Early Modern Era (late 15th-18th c.). Late medieval and patristic works printed and referenced in the early modern era are also included.”

Resources about history and church history. Includes links to timelines, general resources, historical sites, and denominational sites.

Access to reference works, primary texts, databases, journals, websites and blogs for research in the field of Patristics.

Liturgy

Links to liturgical texts used in the Anglican Church of Canada.

This site “is an essential reference resource for scholars of global hymnody, with information on the hymns of many countries and languages, and a strong emphasis on the historical as well as the contemporary. It will be of interest to literary scholars, musicians, church historians, and theologians, and a delight for those who love the hymn as an art form.”

“This site has over 13,000 Christian hymns & Gospel songs from many denominations & languages: Lyrics, sheet music, audio, pictures, biographies, history & more.”

Website of the Institute of Liturgical Studies at Valparaiso University.

Freely accessible articles about liturgy and worship.

“Liturgy Canada is a society of men and women committed to the ongoing renewal of the Church in worship and mission.  Our ministry is to provide resources which focus the debate, inform our practice, and evaluate our experience.”

Australian site that provides articles and resources relating to church liturgy.

Resources for working with the Revised Common Lectionary, which are especially helpful for those preparing to lead worship or preach.

Homiletics

“The Academy of Homiletics was founded in 1965, and now has a membership of nearly 400, spanning every corner of the globe. Membership in the Academy of Homiletics is open to teachers and doctoral graduate students of homiletics.”

Homiletic, a scholarly forum in homiletics and a review of publications in religious communication. It is a freely accessible, peer-reviewed journal sponsored by the Academy of Homiletics.”

Collection of different lectionaries, which contain readings of the Old Testament and/or apocrypha.

Resources for working with the Revised Common Lectionary, which are especially helpful for those preparing to lead worship or preach.

“This site features a wide variety of resources for study and liturgy based on the 3-year Revised Common Lectionary cycle. [It] intentionally include[s] a diverse variety of resources for scripture study, reflection and liturgy, [that] purposefully do not restrict the resources to any particular theological/ideological position.”

Pastoral Theology

“The Journal of Contemporary Ministry reports research and discusses issues related to contemporary ministry, including related theological and biblical questions.”

Freely accessible and downloadable articles about practical theology.

“The Society is primarily concerned with teaching, research, and publication in pastoral theology, and with the critical and imaginative practice of pastoral care and counseling. We welcome all who have an academic or professional interest in pastoral theology as a discipline regardless of religious affiliation or professional identity.”

“Founded in 2007, Theology & Peace holds an annual theological conference grounded in the thought or René Girard, whose insights provide a key for unlocking new approaches to Christian theology, liturgy and praxis, and are especially suited for addressing our current social and political context. Known as a mimetic anthropology, or Mimetic Theory, Girard’s work enables a revolutionary understanding of human violence and argues the critical role of the bible in distilling this understanding in terms of contemporary culture.”

Anglican

Website of the Anglican Church of Canada.

“Official website of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Here you will find news and information about the life and ministry of our Anglican/Episcopal family of Churches in more than 165 countries.”

“First published in 1875 as Dominion Churchman and later as Canadian ChurchmanAnglican Journal has a long and respected history. All content is published at the sole discretion of the editor as part of the newspaper’s mandate of editorial independence.”

Resources about Anglicanism, including links to resources about the Anglican Church in different countries around the world.

Presbyterian

Official website of the Presbyterian Church in Canada.

“Organized in 1852, the Presbyterian Historical Society is the oldest denominational archives in the United States and serves as the national archives for the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) and many predecessor denominations. It exists to collect, preserve, and share the story of the American Presbyterian and Reformed experience with Presbyterians, the scholarly community, and the general public.”

“The Westminster Assembly Project exists to make the writings of the Westminster Assembly and its members available to scholars and to the general public.”

United Church

Official website of the United Church of Canada.

“Founded in 1829, The United Church Observer is the oldest continuously published magazine in North America and the second oldest in the English speaking world.”

Theology

Bibliographies relating to various theological topics, associated with the Journal of Religion and Society.

Freely available articles about Christianty.

Document listing free theological journals available online.

Index Theologicus “is a comprehensive bibliography for theology and religious studies. It is now possible to search not only for articles, but also for monographs, databases and relevant Internet links.”

“The Theological Commons is a digital library of over 110,000 resources on theology and religion. It consists mainly of public domain books and also includes periodicals, audio recordings, photographs, manuscript collections, and other formats.”

The Society for the Study of Theology exists “to promote excellence in the study of Christian Theology by facilitating and shaping theological thought, conversation and community.”

“The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work.”

Freely available articles about Systematic and Dogmatic Theology.

Theologian is dedicated to presenting theological and pastoral resources of the highest quality to the wider church over the internet.”

“Founded in 2007, Theology & Peace holds an annual theological conference grounded in the thought or René Girard, whose insights provide a key for unlocking new approaches to Christian theology, liturgy and praxis, and are especially suited for addressing our current social and political context. Known as a mimetic anthropology, or Mimetic Theory, Girard’s work enables a revolutionary understanding of human violence and argues the critical role of the bible in distilling this understanding in terms of contemporary culture.”

Access to “books, articles, syllabi, and websites to support teachers of theology and religion.”

Reformation

Research tools for those studying the reformation.

The Post-Reformation Digital Library (PRDL) is a select database of digital books relating to the development of theology and philosophy during the Reformation and Post-Reformation/Early Modern Era (late 15th-18th c.). Late medieval and patristic works printed and referenced in the early modern era are also included.”

Research tools for those studying the Reformation.

“Founded in 1947, the Society for Reformation Research (SRR) is a North-American scholarly organization with a long and distinguished record of promoting research, writing, and dialogue on all aspects related to the Protestant and Catholic Reformations and other aspects of religious life in the early modern era.”

Church and Society

“This collection makes available digital content of Catholic materials including books, journals, papers, and manuscripts dealing with the Roman Catholic Church in general, and in particular works created or published in the Americas.”

“The International Bulletin of Mission Research is an unparalleled source of information on the world church in mission.”

“KAIROS unites Canadian churches and religious organizations in a faithful ecumenical response to the call to “do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God” (Micah 6:8). Informed by biblical teaching, KAIROS deliberates on issues of common concern, striving to be a prophetic voice in the public sphere.”

“Out In Scripture is a collection of over 175 conversations about the Bible. With the skilled help of 100 diverse scholars and pastors, from over 11 different denominations, you will discover a fresh approach to Scripture. Here you can be honest, question and go deeper… You don’t have to leave your mind, heart and body behind when you encounter the Bible. This Human Rights Campaign resource places comments about the Bible alongside the real life experiences and concerns of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer people of faith and our allies. The Bible’s not about beating you up, but lifting us all up. It includes the seeds of liberation and justice. You, too, can be out in Scripture.”

“Founded in 2007, Theology & Peace holds an annual theological conference grounded in the thought or René Girard, whose insights provide a key for unlocking new approaches to Christian theology, liturgy and praxis, and are especially suited for addressing our current social and political context. Known as a mimetic anthropology, or Mimetic Theory, Girard’s work enables a revolutionary understanding of human violence and argues the critical role of the bible in distilling this understanding in terms of contemporary culture.”

Public Domain Images for Research

“The Art in the Christian Tradition (ACT) database is a regularly updated visual image internet resource. Designed for scholars, students, pastors, and religious educators, all of the images may be used for non-commercial purposes, with attribution.”

“The Digital Research Team at the British Library has curated this set of highlights from more than one million public domain images from within our digitised collection of over 65,000 books from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.”

“The Getty makes available, without charge, all available digital images to which the Getty holds the rights or that are in the public domain to be used for any purpose. No permission is required.”

“At the Rijksmuseum, art and history take on new meaning for a broad-based, contemporary national and international audience. As a national institute, the Rijksmuseum offers a representative overview of Dutch art and history from the Middle Ages onwards, and of major aspects of European and Asian art. The Rijksmuseum keeps, manages, conserves, restores, researches, prepares, collects, publishes, and presents artistic and historical objects, both on its own premises and elsewhere.”

UBC Research Guides

Subject guide for western religions provides a list of “selected print and electronic sources available to UBC faculty, students, and staff.”

Interfaith

“The  Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) strives to democratize access to the best data on religion.”

“The Canadian Council of Churches is the broadest and most inclusive ecumenical body in Canada, now representing 25 denominations of Anglican, Evangelical, Free Church, Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Protestant and Catholic traditions. We are one of the few ecumenical bodies in the world that includes such a range of Christian churches. Together we represent more than 85% of the Christians in Canada. The officers and staff of the Council are drawn from the whole diversity of traditions represented by the member churches.”

“The Encyclopædia Iranica is a comprehensive research tool dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.”

“The Global Digital Library on Theology and Ecumenism (GlobeTheoLib) is a multilingual online library offering access free of charge to full-text articles, journals, books and other resources on theology, intercultural and interreligious dialogue, ethics, and ecumenism in World Christianity. Participants also have the possibility to contribute their own documents to the library.”

“This site contains a collection of Jewish newspapers published in various countries, languages, and time periods. [It displays] digital versions of each paper, making it possible to view the papers in their original layout. Full-text search is also available for all content published over the course of each newspaper’s publication.”

The Journal of Interreligious Studies is a forum for academic, social, and timely issues affecting religious communities around the world. Published online, it is designed to increase both the quality and frequency of interchanges between religious groups and their leaders and scholars. By fostering conversation, the Journal hopes to increase religious literacy, contribute to the field of interreligious hermeneutics, and address the issues surrounding interreligious relations, dialogue, theology, and communication.”

Freely available articles for the study of religion.

“Religion Online is designed to assist teachers, scholars and general ‘seekers’ who are interested in exploring religious issues. The aim is to develop an extensive library of resources, representing many different points of view, but all written from the perspective of sound scholarship. While the initial orientation has been to seek material written primarily from a Christian perspective, the ultimate aim is to broaden the scope to include material on all the world’s major religions.”

Subject guide for western religions provides a list of “selected print and electronic sources available to UBC faculty, students, and staff.”

“This web site, in existence since 1995, focuses on free (open-access) internet resources ( bibliographies/indexes, library and archive catalogues, dictionaries/encyclopedias, e-texts and journals)  supporting the academic study of religion.”

General

“The CDRI database provides access to digital images of woodcuts, photographs, slides, papyri, coins, maps, postcards, manuscripts, lithographs, sermons, shape-note tune books, and various forms of Christian art, architecture, and iconography.”

“DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.”

Collection of books, heritage material, journals, and papers courtesy of Asbury Theological Seminary.

Document listing free theological journals available online.

List of full text journals available online, courtesy of the Association of Christian Libraries.

“Google Scholar is a [. . .] web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.”

Search engine for open access theological journals.

“Use this website to view digitised copies of manuscripts and archives in the British Library’s collections, with descriptions of their contents.”

“HathiTrust is a large-scale collaborative repository of digital content from research libraries including content digitized via the Google Books project and Internet Archive digitization initiatives, as well as content digitized locally by libraries.”

Site that “provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.”

“The largest freely available archive of online books about religion, mythology, folklore and the esoteric on the Internet. The site is dedicated to religious tolerance and scholarship, and has the largest readership of any similar site on the web.”

“This guide is intended to assist searchers of theological and religious information on the Internet, and is arranged according to major areas of concentration in St. John’s School of Theology, Seminary (Minnesota).”

Digital collections of resources relating to diverse subjects, including American history, art, geography, music, and religion.

List of open access journals.

List of open access journals.

List of open access journals from Oxford University Press.

Oxford Scholarship Online (OSO) is a vast and rapidly-expanding online library, providing easy access to thousands of books across the world-renowned scholarly list of Oxford University Press (OUP). Spanning subjects across the humanities, social sciences, sciences, medicine, and law, OSO is an essential research resource for student, scholar, and academic alike, no matter what their subject specialty.”

“The Theological Commons is a digital library of over 110,000 resources on theology and religion. It consists mainly of public domain books and also includes periodicals, audio recordings, photographs, manuscript collections, and other formats.”

“Project Gutenberg offers over 57,000 free eBooks. Choose among free epub books, free kindle books, download them or read them online. You will find the world’s great literature here, with focus on older works for which copyright has expired.”

Reformed Faith & Practice: The Journal of Reformed Theological Seminary is edited by members of the faculty of the Seminary, and it seeks to further the mission of the Seminary, which is to ‘serve the church by preparing its leaders, through a program of theological education, based on the authority of the inerrant Word of God, and committed to the Reformed faith.’”

Freely available articles for those studying religion.

“The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work.”

“The Abbey Library of St. Gall,  with its 2,100 manuscripts, is among the oldest and most significant manuscript libraries in the world. Half of the manuscripts, or codices, were produced in the middle ages, with about 400 volumes produced before the year 1000 A.D. UNESCO inscribed the Convent of St. Gall complex as a World Heritage Center in 1983. The goal of the ‘Codices Electronici Sangallenses’ (Digital Library of St. Gall) project is to provide access to medieval and selected early modern manuscripts held by the Abbey Library of St. Gall via a virtual library.”

Access to over 2 million free books on the internet.

“WorldCat connects you to the collections and services of more than 10,000 libraries worldwide.”

“The World Digital Library (WDL) is a project of the U.S. Library of Congress [that] makes available on the Internet, free of charge and in multilingual format, significant primary materials from all countries and cultures.”

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